I would say that you have to be able to find an artist and his tracks in your collection. If you know that a certain track can be found under one of the variations, then use that as search criterion (and keep the data that way).
If you want to have a reference to the artist's name, the I would not use the filename as information storage as a decent player would not look at the filename and if you have to use the filename as data reference, then you would not know that the name in the filename is one of the variations.
You may find INVOLVEDPEOPLE an interesting field where you can store the real name of performers or, not quite accurate, use COMPOSER to get a reference to between artist name and performer.
IMHO this problem is only (if at all) a problem for single artists. As soon as you refer to groups and you want to keep track of the different members then you would have to think of a link between the real name of an artist and the current name as performer.
(see e.g. Sting in the band Police and as soloist or Robbie Williams as soloist or in Take That (and some more) or e.g. Eric Clapton who you see in Blind Faith (2), Carl Perkins & Friends, Casey Jones And His Engineers, Cream (2), Derek & The Dominos, Ensemble (6), Eric Clapton & Friends, Eric Clapton & His All Star Band, Eric Clapton And His Band, Eric Clapton And The Powerhouse, George's Band, John Mayall & The Bluesbreakers, Ravi's Orchestra, S. Splurge, T.D.F., The Crickets & Their Buddies, The Dirty Mac, The Louisiana Gator Boys, The Secret Police, The Singing Rebel's Band, The Yardbirds, Vivian Stanshall Sean Head Showband or as King Cool (2), Sir Cedric Clayton, X-Sample (2) - acc. to discogs).
See what is best for your collection.